Belpomme et al, 2015, Rev Environ Health. 2015;30(4):251-71. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0027.
Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder.
The study examined 1216 ES and MCS patients clinically and biologically in the hope of finding recognized clinical criteria and objective biomarkers for diagnosis. The research regarding ES examined 521 people with ES and 152 people who both ES and CMS so a total of 673 ES people. Findings: The data strongly suggest that EHS and MCS can be objectively characterized and routinely diagnosed by commercially available simple tests. Both disorders appear to involve inflammation-related hyper-histaminemia, oxidative stress, autoimmune response, capsulothalamic hypoperfusion and BBB opening, and a deficit in melatonin metabolic availability; suggesting a risk of chronic neurodegenerative disease. Finally the common co-occurrence of EHS and MCS strongly suggests a common pathological mechanism.
Wilén et al, 2006, Bioelectromagnetics. 2006 Apr;27(3):204-14.
Psychophysiological tests and provocation of subjects with mobile phone related symptoms.
The study investigates the effect of a 30 minute exposure to a mobile phone-like radiofrequency (RF) on 20 ES people and 20 people of a control group. The following physiological and cognitive parameters were measured during the experiment: heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV), respiration, local blood flow, electrodermal activity, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), short-term memory, and reaction time. Findings: The reaction time was significantly longer among the ES the test was performed. This difference disappeared when the test was repeated. ES differed significantly from the controls with respect to HRV. The cases displayed a shift in low/high frequency ratio towards a sympathetic dominance in the autonomous nervous system during the CFFT and memory tests, regardless of exposure condition. This might be interpreted as a sign of differences in the autonomous nervous system regulation between persons with ES.
Lyskov et al, 2001, Int J Psychophysiol. 2001 Nov;42(3):233-41.
Neurophysiological study of patients with perceived ‘electrical hypersensitivity’.
The study investigated baseline neurophysiological characteristics of the central and autonomous regulation and their reactivity to different tests in ES in 20 ES people who suffer from neuroasthenic symptoms (general fatigue, weakness, dizziness, headache) and facial skin (itching, tingling, redness). An equal number of symptom-free persons served as a control group. The examination comprised of self-reported measures, testing of visual functions, measurements of blood pressure, heart rate and its variability, electrodermal activity, respiration, EEG and visual evoked potentials (VEP).. Findings: Several variables were found to differ between the patients and the control groups. The mean value of the heart rate in rest condition was higher in the ES. Heart rate variability and response to the standing test were decreased in the ES. ES had faster onset, higher amplitudes, and left-right hand asymmetry of the sympathetic skin responses. They had a higher critical fusion frequency (43 vs. 40 Hz), and a trend to increased amplitude of steady-state VEPs at stimulation frequencies of 30-70 Hz. The data indicated that the observed group of patients had a trend to hyper sympathotone, hyperresponsiveness to sensor stimulation and heightened arousal.
Landgrebe et al, 2007, Journal of Psychosomatic Research 62 (2007) 283-288
Altered cortical excitability in subjectively electrosensitive patients: Results of a pilot study
The aim of the study was to understand the potential role of dysfunctional cortical regulations in ES. Cortical excitability parameters were measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation. 23 ES were tested with 2 control groups of a total of 49 people Findings: ES patients showed reduced intracortical facilitation as compared to both control groups, while motor thresholds and intracortical inhibition were unaffected. This pilot study gives additional evidence that an altered central nervous system function may account for symptom manifestation in ES as has been postulated for several chronic multisymptom illnesses sharing a similar clustering of symptoms.
Dahmen et al, 2009, Bioelectromagnetics. 2009 May;30(4):299-306.
Blood laboratory findings in patients suffering from self-perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS).
The study hypothesized that some ES people are suffering from common somatic health problems and aimed at finding routinely used laboratory tests in clinical medicine to identify or screen for common somatic disorders. The study was done on 132 ES people and 101 controls. The study analyzed clinical laboratory parameters including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatinine, hemoglobine, hematocrit and c-reactive protein (CRP). Findings: The results identified laboratory signs of thyroid dysfunction, liver dysfunction and chronic inflammatory processes in small but remarkable fractions of ES sufferers
Tuengler & Von Klitzing, 2013, Electromagn Biol Med. 2013 Sep;32(3):281-90.
Hypothesis on how to measure electromagnetic hypersensitivity.
The paper addresses reasons why most provocation studies could not find any association between EMF exposure and EHS and presents a hypothesis of three potential bio-markers for diagnosis of ES using simultaneous recordings of (1) heartrate variability (2) microcirculation (capillary blood flow) which is analyzing the capacity of autonomous nervous activity and (3) electric skin potentials. Prof. Klitzing tested about 100 ES people using these bio-markers and provides some reference to his un-published data within this paper.
Pall, 2013, J Cell Mol Med. 2013 Aug;17(8):958-65.
Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects
The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects. Downstream responses of such EMF exposures may be mediated through Ca(2+) /calmodulin stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Potentially, physiological/therapeutic responses may appear largely as a result of nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G pathway stimulation. A well-studied example of such an apparent therapeutic response, EMF stimulation of bone growth, appears to work along this pathway. However, pathophysiological responses to EMFs may be as a result of the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite-oxidative stress pathway of action. A single such well-documented example, EMF induction of DNA single-strand breaks in cells, as measured by alkaline comet assays, is reviewed here. Such single-strand breaks are known to be produced through the action of this pathway. Data on the mechanism of EMF induction of such breaks are limited; what data is available support this proposed mechanism. Other Ca(2+) -mediated regulatory changes, independent of nitric oxide, may also have roles. This article reviews, then, a substantially supported set of targets, VGCCs, whose stimulation produces non-thermal EMF responses by humans/higher animals with downstream effects involving Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide increases, which may explain therapeutic and pathophysiological effects.
Hagström et al, 2013, Pathophysiology. 2013 Apr;20(2):117-22.
Electromagnetic hypersensitive Finns: Symptoms, perceived sources and treatments, a questionnaire study.
The study analyzed the subjective experiences of 206 Finns who suffer from ES, including their symptoms, self-perceived sources of the health complaints and the effectiveness of medical and complementary alternative therapies. Findings: During the acute phase of ES the most common symptoms were nervous system related: stress, sleeping disorders and fatigue. Reduction of exposure was reported by 76% to be the most effective in the reduction of their symptoms and improvement in their condition. . The official treatment recommendations of psychotherapy (2.6%) and medication (-4.2%) were not significantly helpful.
Hallberg O, Oberfeld G, 2006, Electromagn Biol Med 2006; 25 (3): 189 – 191
http://www.next-up.org/pdf/EHS2006_HallbergOberfeld.pdf (Full paper)
Letter to the editor: will we all become Electrosensitive?
The paper provides a list of all surveys that were conducted to estimate the rate of ES in the population and therefore it is valuable. The paper indicates that ES is not a condition suffered by a small fraction of the population, that it is widespread and that the extrapolated data shows a trend that suggests that 50% of the population may become electrosensitive by the year 2017.
Santini et al, 2003, Electromagn Biol Med 2003; 22 (1): 41 – 49
Survey study of people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations.
A survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 530 people living or not in proximity to cellular phone base stations. Eighteen different symptoms described as radiofrequency sickness (ES), were studied by means of the chi‐square test with Yates correction. Findings: Certain complaints are experienced only in the immediate vicinity of base stations (up to 10 m for nausea, loss of appetite, visual disturbances), and others at greater distances from base stations (up to 100 m for irritability, depressive tendencies, lowering of libido, and up to 200 m for headaches, sleep disturbances, feeling of discomfort). In the 200 m to 300 m zone, only the complaint of fatigue is experienced significantly more often when compared with subjects residing at more than 300 m or not exposed (reference group). For seven of the studied symptoms and for the distance up to 300 m, the frequency of the reported complaints is significantly higher for women in comparison to men. Significant differences are also observed in relation to the ages of the subjects, and of the subject’s location in relation to the antennas and other electromagnetic factors.
McCarty et al, 2011, Int J Neurosci. 2011 Dec;121(12):670-6.
http://andrewamarino.com/PDFs/171-IntJNeurosci2011.pdf (full paper)
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: evidence for a novel neurological syndrome.
The objective of the study was to provide evidence that acute exposure to environmental-strength electromagnetic fields (EMFs) could induce somatic reactions (EMF hypersensitivity). Methods: The subject, a female physician selfdiagnosed with EMF hypersensitivity, was exposed to an average (over the head) 60-Hz electric field of 300 V/m (comparable with typical environmental-strength EMFs) during controlled provocation and behavioral studies. Findings: In a double-blinded EMF provocation procedure specifically designed to minimize unintentional sensory cues, the subject developed temporal pain, headache, muscle twitching, and skipped heartbeats within 1 00 s after initiation of EMF exposure (p < .05). The symptoms were caused primarily by field transitions (off-on, on-off) rather than the presence of the field, as assessed by comparing the frequency and severity of the effects of pulsed and continuous fields in relation to sham exposure. The subject demonstrated statistically reliable somatic reactions in response to exposure to subliminal EMFs under conditions that reasonably excluded a causative role for psychological processes. Conclusion: EMF hypersensitivity can occur as a bona fide environmentally .